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Taiwan Confucian Temple
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Usually, in front of the Confucius Temple courtyard, there is the Pan Pond, a semicircular pool, which symbolizes the combination of Confucius Temple and School. The Pond originates from the “Book of Pond Water” in the Book of Odes, thus, on the wall of the pond, there is a stone tablet reading “Thinking of music by the pond.” In the past, all scholars taking examinations had to visit Confucius, pass through the Lingxing Gate, circle the Pond, then pluck a piece of water celery and insert it in their hat. This was called “touring the Pond.” The Ta Cheng Arch is one of the 3 venues named as Ta Cheng in the Confucius Temple and it comes in the east and the west part. The name Ta Cheng is taken from the Mengfucius Chapters Part II: “Confucius is the greatest intellectual” This is to say that Confucius compiled all knowledge from the period of 3 eras to Zhougong and sorted out poems, books, institutionalized rituals and music, Zhouyi, Spring and Autumn to become the greatest intellectual and naming the building in the Confucius Temple after Ta Cheng would be right to highlight the nature of the building.The East Ta Cheng Arch, the main entrance to the Tainan Confucius Temple, was built in the year 54 of Kangxi of the Qing Dynasty (1715) and underwent repairs ordered by CHEN Bing of the Taiwan Xiamen Governor. The West Ta Cheng Arch was built in the year 14 of Qianlong of the Qing Dynasty (1749) ordered by YANG Kaiding, the Taiwan censor. Both buildings underwent a number of repairs and are almost identical in appearance, with the lower part a double-cross heavy-duty wall and the upper part supported with a wooden structure and the center with a suspension swallowtail. The cross heavy-duty wall top comes with swallowtail ends show 6 swallowtails in a particular shape. The water-stops come in the form of dragons and bats.Both the east and the west Ta Cheng Arches in the Tainan Confucius Temple come showing the name. The east one features the tablet reading The First School in Taiwan. There are a number of versions about the time of its establishment. One says it was in 1917 when the Japanese rebuilt the site and. The one we see today is a reproduction, as the original one is on display in the showroom.On the wall of the East Ta Cheng Arch, there is Dismount Tablet that could have been built in the year 26 of Kangxi of the Qing Dynasty (1687), reading All officers and citizens dismount here. The sign asks all visitors to show their respect. On the fence linking Ta Cheng Palace and the non-existing Ling Hsing Gate in the Tainan Confucius Temple, there are 2 access gates. The one in the east is called the Li Gate and the one in the west the Yi Path. They are named so to suggest that all those who pursue Confucianism must follow discipline and just. As Ta Cheng Palace centers the Confucius Temple, all students must go through the Li Gate and the Yi Path before entering into the halls. The 2 gates were first built in 1715, followed by more repairs. The ones we see today were rebuilt between 1986 and 1987.When there was a fence linking the Ta Cheng Gate and the Ling Hsing Gate, these 2 gates were only accessible with a key. When the fence became obsolete, there were 2 holes that were connected to the structure in front of Ta Cheng Palace. In terms of architecture, the Li Gate and the Yi Path come in the form of a mountain with swallowtail and a pair of owls on the ridge. The holes bear a transverse tablet reading Gate of Rites and Path of Righteousness. Patterned windows are available on the front walls and the sidewall. Ta Cheng Gate, the main entrance to the Tainan Confucius Temple, named so to stand for the great wrok, just as the Tacheng Arch and Ta Cheng Palace, was built in the year 54 of Kangxi of the Qing Dynasty (1715). It was available when CHEN Bing offered to rebuild the Confucius Temple, followed by repeated repairs. Current temple was rebuilt between (1987) and (1989). The 3-local Ta Cheng Gate is the most glamorous one in the Tainan Confucius Temple. 6 columns support its wooden framework and the roof is made as a reproduction of ancient style, with flowers, sparrow tail and lion base, with partial painting. The mountain-shaped roof comes with 3 ridges. The open room has a taller roof and the 2 others with a lower one, with swallowtail ends. The open room comes with an icon of shinning sun and the 4 falling ridges and the eaves on both sides have an animal that looks like a lion and a tiger at the same time. It is said to be a good animal, as it does not eat living creatures and follows moral rules. There is an ornament on the ridge of the 2 side rooms. Some say it is the mouth of the hornless dragon and others insist it’s a fish or owl, to keep fire away.On the gate, each and every open room has 2 panels consisting of 2 pieces. The tall door panels and doorsills are meant to convert one’s mind. Usually only the door of the left room (east) is open and all open for important rituals. The door panels come with nails on them, 108 of them (54 on each side). As 9 stands for the maximum of the Yang, times 12 for 108 suggests the maximum or the rituals and it is used for the Confucius Temple to mean something different. While door gods would be painted on ordinary temple doors, nails are for entitled gods only. Nails on Confucius Temple doors are to highlight the extraordinary status of Confucius. The door latch comes in the form of a dragon’s head, just to show the idea. The doorposts come in the cylindrical shape with simple icons on it. Bearing no Chinese couplets as a way to avoid literal errors in front of Confucius.In front of the Ta Cheng door panels, there is a stone drum of antique design and it serves to stabilize the building as well. Sill windows are available between door panels and the posts. In open rooms (center), it comes in the form of engraved dragon and Qiling on top and the wall bears color paintings. The left room (east) has the top of solid wood and on the bottom; there are icons of elephant, fans and guards in color paintings. Both walls bear terra cotta ornaments.In addition to the main gate, the bearing walls on both sides of the Ta Cheng Gate, there are a number of key stone tablets. Outside the gate, it is the one for the rebuilding of the Taiwan Confucius Temple of (1715)(CHEN Bin, east) and the one for the rebuilding of the Tainan Confucius Temple of (1803)(west). On the inside, it is the one for the rebuilding of the Tainan Confucius Temple of (1751) and the one bearing the names of those who supervised the rebuilding of the state and county schools in (1791). Besides the text, the embossed sculpture demonstrates its artistic aestheticism. In the Tainan Confucius Temple, the first school in Taiwan, there are 2 more buildings by the Ta Cheng Gate that are major attractions to visitors. The one on the east side is Shrines of Distinguished Official and Respected Village Scholars. The 2 buildings were the ones erected to honor ministers in past dynasties and local seniors in the venue. The first ones in the Tainan Confucius Temple were erected in the year 54 of Kangxi of the Qing Dynasty (1715), when they were located to the right of Qisheng Shrine (renamed as Chung Sheng Shrine later). In the year 14 of Qianlong (1749), when HOU Shihui donated fund to rebuild the Confucius Temple, the venue was set for ritual and musical repository and books repository and Shrines of Distinguished Official and Shrines of Respected Village Scholars were moved to the sides of Ta Cheng Palace. In Shrines of Distinguished Official and Respected Village Scholars, there were tablets of SHIH Lang, the Fukian Navy Commander-in-Chief and CHIANG Yuying, The Taiwanese governors among 10 other renowned people. The 2 local virtuous were WANG Fenglai and CHEN Zhenyao. Between the year 22 of Kangxi (1683) and the year 21 of Guangshu (1895), the local virtuous admitted to the Xiangxian Shrine were ZHENG Tsunghe, ZHENG Yongxi, ZHENG Yongjian of Tamshui County and WANG Fenglai of Taiwan County as well as CHEN Zhenyao of Jiayi County and only ZHENG Yongxi and CHEN Zhenyao were awarded the tablet of Local Virtuous. The one granted to CHEN Zhenyao was kept in the National Artifacts Museum.In terms of architecture, Shrines of Distinguished Official and Respected Village Scholars are a linear space of 3 locales, with a porch. The main gate is right in the middle (open) of cell windows. The 2 rooms on the side come with plank windows with the lower part supported by a cement wall with dragon and tiger sculptures. Flowers and birds decorate the walls on the left and the right, though decayed now. Shrines of Distinguished Official and Respected Village Scholars are of simple wooden framework, with cylindrical stone columns. The mountain-shaped roof is decorated with raising swallowtails. There are 3 niches on the inside. The one in the middle and to the left (right) is for local seniors. The niche comes of simple design, as it bears simple icons. On the rear outer wall, there is a stone table reading Rebuilding the Temple. Small paths and gates linking the two shrines to the Hall of Edification provide available room. In the south of the 2 sides of Ta Cheng Palace in the Tainan Confucius Temple, the first school in Taiwan, there are the east and West Corridor, where the virtuous and Confucians are kept. This act of honoring the outstanding disciples of Confucius began in the Jenguan Years of the Tang Dynasty, followed by changes. The virtuous and Confucians are the renowned ones. The east and West Corridor of the Tainan Confucius Temple were built in year 39 of Kangxi of the Qing Dynasty (1700) by WANG Zhiling, the Taixia King when the temple was refurbished, followed by additional works. Current building began in 1986 and the work finished on 1988. In the East Corridor of the Tainan Confucius Temple, there are 41 virtuous and 39 Confucians, including virtuous ZHOU Tunyi, CHEN Hao, Confucians DONG Zhongshu, HAN Yu, FANG Zhongyan, WEN Tienxiang and GU Yanweu among others. IN the West Corridor, there are 40 virtuous and 38 Confucians, including virtuous ZHANG Zai, SHAO Yung, Confucians ZHUGE Liang, AUYANG Shiu, SIMA Kwang and HUANG Zhongxi among others.In terms of architecture, the east and West Corridors are 2 identical buildings that come in the form of a strip with a facade of 5 rooms and a porch on the front. On the inside, there is a corridor with a long table that extends along the wall. On the table, there are the tablets in honor of the virtuous and Confucians. The door is right in the lighting one (in the middle) consisting of 3 door panels. On the beam, there is a wooden tablet for the room. The windows on the side come in the form of doorsill, as on top of it is a piece of solid wall. At dawn or later afternoon, sunshine reflects through the carved windows on the inside. The east and west Corridors come with open wooden framework and there is no sculpture or color painting, the cylindrical columns are simple ones. On the roof of both rooms, there is a hard mountaintop with a ridge and 2 swallowtail patterned ends. 2 strange animals on the ridge. Some say they are hornless dragons that like watching. On the east wall of the Minglun Hall, in front of the East Corridor, there is a tablet in display since the year 16 of Daokwang of the Qing Dynasty (1836) reading Artifacts and Musical Instruments Used In the Rebuilding of the Tainan Confucius Temple. The characters Huang Qing made in embossed sculpture are a piece of delicate work. The Ritual Implements Storerooms and Musical Instruments Storerooms are located in the north of the rooms by Ta Cheng Palace in the Tainan Confucius Temple, linking the East and West corridors. The two storerooms preserve a large number of ritual objects and musical instruments used in the ceremonial ritual. In the year 54 of Kangxi of the Qing Dynasty (1715) when CHEN Bing offered to rebuild the Confucius Temple, the objects and the musical instruments were kept in West Corridor. In the years of Qianlong of the Qing Dynasty, they were then kept on both sides of the Cheng Sheng Shrine. With the increasing number of objects and musical instruments, they were moved to the north of the East and West corridors. Current building was made between (1986) and (1987).In terms of architecture, Ritual Implements Storeroom and Musical Instrument Storeroom are identical to the east and West Corridors, as they come with 5 open locales in linear arrangement and a porch on the front. On the inside, there is a long corridor on the mountain-shaped roof of both rooms; there is a horse-head-shaped ornament and a tile serving as waterstop. The door is right in the middle open room with a tablet hung above. There are plank windows on both sides, supported by solid walls. The upper part comes with strips and icons. Ritual Implements Storeroom is not open to the public at this time and Musical Instrument Storeroom serves as a reading room with display of ancient musical instruments. Ta Cheng Palace is the tallest of the group of buildings in the middle level and it is named as Ta Cheng on the same ground as that of Ta Cheng Arch and the Ta Cheng Gate. The Tainan Confucius Temple, the first school in Taiwan had Ta Cheng Palace when built, though a simple structure, it underwent repairs ordered by all emperors. Ta Cheng Palace we know today was built in 1977. In terms of layout, Ta Cheng Palace is right in the complex formed by the Ta Cheng Gate, Shrines of Distinguished Official and Respected Village Scholars, Shrine of Fidelity and Piety and Shrine of Bereaved Son, the East Corridor and the Deposit of Ritual Artifacts, the Tsungsheng Shrine, the Yi Cheng School and the Library as a very important building. On the other side, Ta Cheng Palace is located on a platform overlooking the other buildings that highlights its noble status.The platform on the front of Ta Cheng Palace is for the Yi Dance as part of the ceremonial rituals offered to Confucius. On the front of the platform there is the Royal Path, known as the Hornless Stair in the Dictionary of the Qing Dynasty Ceremonial Rituals. The hornless dragon is son of the dragon and the hornless stair is a royal symbol. As the Kangshuantsong named Confucius as the Wenshuanwang, Ta Cheng Palace is entitled to the noble symbol.Besides the icon of dragon, the hornless dragon stair is decorated with literal scripts and it was reserved only for those who held the first place in an imperial examination when conducting the ceremonial with the emperor, a legacy that followed on. On both sides of the hornless stair and to the east and west of the platform, there are stairs for access and the platform itself is paved with stone slabs that remind us of ancient years. Ta Cheng Palace is a little taller than the platform. In scale, Ta Cheng Palace is a quasi-square building, with a 3-locale facade and depth. 12 wooden columns and 3 walls facing east, west and north support the entire structure and the roof.Of the 12 wooden columns, the golden columns (the 4 in the middle of the hall) and the 2 on the front (south side) are independent ones, the other 6 are attached to the wall. The golden columns come in an octagonal shape, with a geometric icon and the rest are cylindrical ones. The framework is simple as only the main beam comes showing the icon of Taiji, the others are simple ones. The front comes with 6 door panels and there are 4 on the left and the right side. The top of the panels comes with finely carved wooden planks. On each of the east, west and north sides, there is a confined porch, of which the low wall and that of the balcony is one. The wall comes with styled bricks and the cute small lions on the 8 corners stand in different postures. Beneath the 4 corners there is a hornless dragon head serving for drainage. Some say they resemble a turtle’s head meaning victory. Others say it stands for the water-going son of the dragon that had 9 offspring.The Ta Cheng Palace’s roof is in “hip-and-gable” style. There is a 9-story pagoda in the middle, with dragons on either side. There are also cylindrical drums for books that are exclusive to the Confucius Temple. It is said that in the days of the Qingshi Emperor, when books were burnt and intellectuals buried alive, people kept books in the drums.The other ornaments on the ridge are the owls in pair. The pairs of owls are other unique sculptures to be found on the roof. The owl is regarded as an evil bird. “By the Pond” from the Book of Odes, reads: “…owls gather by the pond / eat my mulberries, and salute us with fine notes” This suggests that Confucius’ doctrine is capable of making the owls docile. On both sides of the mountain-shaped wall, there is a pair of iron-made scissors to highlight the contrast of the mountain-shaped wall and the wooden beams on the inside. It is said that the architectural technique is originated from the Netherlands. On top of the mountain there is an icon of a lion head with a piece of stone in the mouth symbolizing fortune. The tablet of Ta Cheng Hall is hung between the eaves.On the inside, the floor is paved with red tiles and the niche for Confucius is right in the middle and on both sides, it’s the niches for the 4 levels of 12 virtuous. The 4 levels are by the niche (Yanze and Zisizi on the east, Zengzi and Mengfucius on the west); the 12 virtuous are by the door (Mingziqian, Ranyon, Duanmusi, Zhongyou, and Pushang, Youruo on the east and Ranboniu, Zaiwo, Ranyou, Yanyan, Zhuansoongshi and JU Xi on the west). Columns divide the Confucius niches in the north side of the open room. The opening in the middle and covered with a piece of cloth curtain, with 2 wooden planks on each side and a table in front. The niche is a small building with a pair of golden small dragon column to house the table of Confucius. The ceiling bears icons of Taiji and Eight Diagrams, which we assume are supplementary works, as they do not match the building. The small incense stove used to be in the Fudeh Shrine. The niches for the 4 levels of 12 outstanding disciples are only simple tablets.The wooden framework of Ta Cheng Palace is visible and tablets granted by the previous emperors are on display, such as Exemplary Teacher by Kangxi, Non-existent in the population by Yongzheng, No. 3 after heaven and earth by Qianlong, The Greatest Sage by Jiaqing, The Greatest of all times by Daoguang, The virtuous of all times by Xianfeng, The greatest dispatched by God by Tongzhi and The polished person by Guangshu, the same are on display in Confucius Temples in China. Other tablets granted after the World War II are Teaching All People by CHIANG Kaishek, The long-lasting doctrine by CHIANG Jingguo, the Greatest Teacher and Sage by YAN Jiakan and The virtuous that matches heaven and earth by LEE Teng-hui by CHEN Shuibian, the new President. Of the 2 buildings by the Chung Sheng Shrine in the Tainan Confucius Temple, the first school in Taiwan, the east one corresponds to the Yi Cheng School and the west Storehouse of Books and Records. The Confucius Temple had no book repository. In the year 14 of Qianlong of the Qing Dynasty (1749), when the Minghuang Shrine and the Xiangxian Temple were moved to between the east and West Corridor and the Tsung Sheng Temple, ritual objects and books began being kept in different sites. When Ritual Implements Storeroom and Musical Instrument Storeroom were located to the north of the east and West Corridor, both sides of the Tsung Sheng Temple became available for books and records.During the Japanese occupation, the Japanese government opened a public school in the Confucius Temple, when Storehouse of Books and Records turned into the east and west book repositories. Later, the east book repository turned into the Yi Cheng School and the west one Storehouse of Books and Records and remained closed to the public. At present, the buildings housing the Yi Cheng School and Storehouse of Books and Records remain as they were between (1985) and (1986), that is to say, in 3 facades and the one in the middle with a double-panel door, as a structure of simple construction and decoration. In terms of architecture, the roofs of the Yi Cheng School and Storehouse of Books and Records are slightly lower than Chung Sheng Shrine in the middle, as both have the swallowtail end, with integrated tiles having no waterstop.Yi Cheng School served as a music hall of the Confucius Temple. In the early stage of the Tainan Confucius Temple, the first school in Taiwan, the music hall was available for ceremonial rituals, though there is no documented record for it. What we do have in document is that in the Year 15 of Daoguang of the Qing Dynasty (1835), after LIU Hongxiang, the Taiwan Provincial Commander-in-chief, rebuilt Musical Instrument Storeroom and WU Shangxin and LIU Yishao, the music directors, introduced new musical instruments while hiring musicians from the mainland.In the year 17 of Guangshu of the Qing Dynasty (1891), CHEN Hongzhi, a clerk in the Ministry of Public Works launched the campaign for the establishment of the Yi Cheng School (known to as the Yicheng Society in the days of Japanese occupation) and HSU Nanying was named director and ZHAO Yunshi, the deputy/ The name Yicheng was taken for the sake of musical harmony.In the beginning, a strict screening system was in place for the selection of students for the institute as only those who had passed the state examination for public servants would be eligible for admission. Students in the institute must conduct constant practice so they could be selected as servants and musicians in the ceremonial rituals. In the year 8 of Showa of the Japanese calendar (1933), when the Ceremonial rituals for the Confucius Temple were being prepared, ancient music scripts and notes were collected, a practice that made ancient music survive. At this time, a niche is made available in the open space in the middle for Confucius and 5 Wenchang Emperor. The tablet above the niche reads Elegant Tune in Secluded Palace. The incense holder in front of the niche used to serve the Wenchang Emperors. On both sides, renowned virtuous were on display. Musical instruments and a portrait of Confucius were on display in the venue. The shrine behind Ta Cheng Palace in the Tainan Confucius Temple, the first school in Taiwan, stands the Chung Sheng Shrine, known as the Qisheng Shrine in old days. Qisheng was the title granted to Shulianghe, Confucius’ father. In a Chinese temple, father of one would be offered behind the main building as honor. In the Tainan Confucius, this must be one of the early buildings after Confucius’ father. In the year of 1 of Yongzheng (1723), the Qing administration granted titles to 5 generations of Confucius’, and changed the Qisheng Shrine as Chung Sheng Shrine. The building had undergone repairs and latest one was between 1985 and 1986.As of the layout, the Chung Sheng Shrine is an open 3-locale building without doors or windows. In terms of structure, it is a wooden framework supported by 18 columns with roof. Part of the elements is painted with birds and the mountain-shaped roof bears no ornaments besides the swallowtails. Niches of the 5 generations of Confucius are in the middle of the shrine. In the east are the virtuous (Conmengpi, Yanwuyao, Conli) and the disciples (ZHOU Fucheng, CHENG, CAI Yuanding); in the west there are the niches for the virtuous (ZENG Dian, MENG Ji) and disciples (ZHANG Di and JU Sung). Conmengpi was Confucius’ older brother, Zisi’s father; ZENG Dian was ZEN Zi’ father and MENG ji, Mengfucius’ father. On the wall inside the shrine, there is the tablet reading In Honor of Confucius’ 5 Generations, granted in the year 2 of Yonzheng of the Qing Dynasty (1724). The stone slabs linking the Chung Sheng Shrine and Ta Cheng Palace are available for the ceremonial officers. Entrance for Morality Training is the symbolic entrance to the Minglun Hall in the Tainan Confucius Temple, the first school in Taiwan. Entrance for Morality Training was available in the year 39 of Kangxi of the Qing Dynasty (1700) when WANG Zhiling rebuilt the Minglun Hall, though it underwent repeated rebuilding and the last one was conducted between 1987 and 1989).In terms of architecture, Entrance for Morality Training has a main body of 3 locals in the middle with 2 side rooms, plus a porch. The main body is a white-color wall with 3 doors of stone frame being the one in the middle the widest. The title of Entrance for Morality Training comes with patterned windows to the right and the left and the ones on both sides are narrower. The right table reads Sacred City and the west one Virtuous Pass. The wall that separates the side rooms comes with watercolor paintings. In old days, selected students must first pass through this gate symbolizing their determination of becoming virtuous by polishing themselves. Posts, stone ones on the outside and wooden ones on the inside, support Entrance for Morality Training. The mountain-shaped roof is available with swallowtail ends. The north side of the side room adjacent to the east and west walls is an open space and on the north side of the east and west walls there is the stone monuments built in (1713) and (1818) reading History of the Taiwan Public School and Rebuilding the Temple respectively. The rest are red walls and stone plant windows. The horseback is finished in mountain-shaped form. Hall of Edification is a common title for auditoriums and the one in the Tainan Confucius Temple is no exception. The word ‘Ming Lun’ (明倫) refers to erecting the social order that stands for the human relations governed by the religion and the law and awareness the Confucianism bears about the community. The religious and legal system was meant to erect family ties in the early stage of the community before it turned institutionalized and solemnized. It includes honoring the senior, caring the relative, respecting the virtuous and setting rules for both men and women. Confucius believed that a community must be built on order and friendliness and respecting the respectable must support social order and honoring the senior, and caring the young is the driving force of the society. Kindness is demonstrated by caring the young, a display of discipline of the society of order and friendliness.Therefore, Ming Lun is key to Confucianism and almost all major auditoriums are named as Hall of Edification.Following the system of school on the left and temple on the right, Hall of Edification in the Tainan Confucius Temple, the first school in Taiwan sits to the right of the main building. In the beginning when the Confucius Temple was erected, Hall of Edification was there. In 1700, CHEN Bin expanded the building, followed by more additional works. The last one was conducted between 1987 and 1989.In terms of architecture, the Hall of Edification consists of the front structure and the main body on the rear. The front structure is to transform the space, or part of the interior. Supported by 4 wooden pillars, the roof comes in the form of a mountain. The facade comes with 3 open locals and plank windows. Arch doors are available on the porch and the walls bear color paintings. The appearance shows a roof in the form of a mountain and the ridge bears nothing, only with swallowtail ends. On top of the north wall, there are patterned windows.On the inside, a screen in the middle divides the space. Above, there is the tablet offered by YANG Kaiding, a Taiwan censor of the Qing Dynasty in 1750. The screen bears 205 words of The Way to Great Learning, a reproduction of the renowned calligrapher ZHAO Mengfu of the Yuan Dynasty. On the sidewalls, it’s the 4 words of Loyalty, Filial piety, Integrity and Just, a reproduction of JU Xi.The east wall bears the monument for the repair of the Taiwan Confucius Temple of 1780 and the horizontal monument of 1868 and the monument for the repair of the Taiwan Confucius Temple School and Layout of the Taiwan Confucius Temple of 1777. The horizontal monument shows the school rule and the layout shows the scale of the Confucius Temple of those days. The 3-story building in the northeast corner of the Tainan Confucius Temple, the first school in Taiwan is known as Pavilion for Literature Deity (Wen Chang), which is a special building among all Confucius Temples in Taiwan. In ancient systems, the Pavilion for Literature Deity (Wen Chang) did not necessarily have anything to do with the temple, just as Wen Change Di and Kuixing with Confucius. Only the system of examination for public servants made this building available in the temple. In (1715), when CHEN Bin began building the Wen Change Pagoda, a stone tablet for the event was erected. A number of rebuilding works followed before the last work conducted in (1979). In the Wen Change Pagoda in the Tainan Confucius, the first floor comes in a square shape and the second one circular while the third one octagonal. Both the second and the third floors bear a reduced corridor. The top floor is a square eave and the one on the second floor in octagonal shape and the one on the third floor is an octagonal shape with a guard on it. Currently the Wen Change is kept on the second floor and Kuixing on the third floor, making some refer the building as the Kuixing PavilionSome insist that Wen Chang Deity was the Zitungdi Emperor, ZHANG Yaze of the Jin Dynasty, a good son. When died, a temple was built to honor him. In the beginning he was worshiped as the god of the thunder, then it turned out to be a local god of Zitung. In the Tang Dynasty, it turned to be a national god for its effort in defending the state and, with the Wen Chang Deity, the 2 became one. Wen Change used to be the Wen Change Star 6 of the 7 Peidou Constellation and Taoism take it as the god for fortune and good position. In the Yuan Dynasty, when Renzong crowned the Zitung Di as the one for civilization and fortune, in brief, Wen Chang Deity, the 2 gods became one. Wen Chang Deity on the second floor of the Confucius Temple sits with an official hat. The left hand holds a piece of jade for the fortune in the niche that resembles a small building; the incense is the original one. The Kui Hsing used to be one of the 7 of the north constellation and people used to refer it as the large Kui star or the large Kui. The worship of the Kui star is originated from the worship of Kuisu, which is thought to govern success in career and was later renamed as the Kui Star. Having no idea about the appearance of the Kui Star, the word Kui was later converted in the form of someone with the right foot standing on the head of a turtle and the left one kicking up. With a pen in the hand, the man is to select the names of people having successfully passes the examination for public servants. This is the renowned Kui Hsing selecting the leading examinees. The Kui Hsing on the third floor of the Confucius Temple in a niche is in the same form and the incense holder used to property of Minghuan Shrine. Both Wen Change Di and Kui Hsing are gods worshipped by intellectuals in Taiwan, as they are sure that the 2 figures will bring them luck. However, this is contradictory to Confucianism and in the stone monument erected for the newly built Wen Change Pagoda, CHEN Bin writes: “I have no idea about Wen Change and Zitung, are the 2 one or they are 2 different gods? Are they people or god?” and encouraged the intellectuals to work hard for knowledge, not for any position.In addition to the figures on the second and the third floor, there is an antique tablet reading Highlighting Learning of (1738) on the first floor of the Pavilion for Literature Deity (Wen Chang). On the second floor it is the tablet reading Portrait of GAO and CHEN of (1777). GAO refers to GAO Hongqian and CHEN for CHWEN Bin. The portraits and the tablet for the newly built PAVILION FOR LITERATURE DEITY (WEN CHANG) are valuable artifacts. The wooden elements and the wooden ladder serving as access inside it are special features too. As the tallest building in the Tainan Confucius Temple, it used to be a major observatory in the beginning of its construction. As of the landscape in the perimeter, the tablet for the newly built PAVILION FOR LITERATURE DEITY (WEN CHANG) reads: The mountain to the east bears green trees; to the south, it’s the Feng Mountain; to the west, it is the ocean with relentless waves and to the north it is the Wangshou Pagoda passing through the clouds. The Confucius Temple is now surrounded by a large number of tall buildings and not a beauty anymore; standing on it, one can still checking out the diversified roofs or other buildings in the complex. The Stone Arch of Higher Learning, Pan Gao, in Tainan Confucius Temple was erected at the year of 1749, with a structure of 4 columns decorated with delicate sculptures. The central beam is gracefully decorated with two dragons and picturesque figurines. Right in the middle of the roof is a gourd with an owl lowering its head on both ends. The eight stone lions stand out as lovely figurines. The Stone Arch was the entrance to the temple, and was moved to the east due to the construction of Nanmeng road.
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