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From Royal Education to One Hundred Schools

 
  Under the feudal system of Late Antiquity, the three areas of religion, politics, and academia were inseparably bound. This kind of aristocratic academia was referred to as “royal education” “Ceremonial” and “historical” officials were among those responsible for preserving, organizing, and disseminating knowledge. The substance of “learning” was immensely varied, but in general was centered on rites. One could say that the term “rites” encompassed all politics and academics in ancient society. Rites were not only the basis on which states were ruled and the standard for military action; they were moreover a model for aristocratic lifestyles and individual deportment.

 
  In the Eastern Zhou Dynasty, the emperor Tianzi’s system of religious law gradually collapsed. In increasing numbers, lesser noblemen gradually dispersed to the grass roots. In addition, competition between states made it possible for average citizens to get promoted. The ancient royal education system was thus gradually disseminated at the grass roots level, eventually becoming the study of very kinds of philosophic thoughts.The Chinese historians refer to this cultural flowering as "The Period of The One Hundred Schools" (551-233 BC).

 
  There were six major schools of thought, including that of Confucius, Mozi, the Legalists, and Yinyang.

 
Confucius, Mengzi, and the Early Confucians

 
  Represented by Confucius and Mengzi, the early Confucians were characterized by their emphasis on humanistic spirit, and affirmation of the basic goodness of man. They believed that, through spiritual perception, a person could achieve an ideal moral constitution, what the Confucians termed being a “gentleman.” In addition, Confucianism also included the concept of man’s inherent evil, as found in Xunzi, used to stress the importance of Confucian education, and rule through ritual. This was to have a far-reaching effect on later generations of Confucians.

 
Ancestral tablets in the Confucius Temple

 
  After Confucius’ death, Aigong of Lu converted Confucius’ house into a temple.   Gaozu of the Han Dynasty personally led the ceremonial ritual worshipping Confucius, a practice followed by other emperors.

 
  The ceremonial rituals survived for thousands of years in China. Led by the emperor on his knees, they symbolize the respect held for Confucianism.   In the beginning, rituals were offered to Confucius, and secondary rituals to his disciples.   After the Tang Dynasty, Confucius’ disciples and key Confucians were gradually worshipped as well. There were three levels: “Sages,” Men of Virtue,” and “Confucians.” They were divided into the four companion matches, twelve philosophers, and Confucians of the East and West Corridors. Ceremonial rituals were based on tablets.   The 4 companion matches were separated into “East” and “West.” Corridors. The 12 philosophers were also divided into “East” and “West.”.The other Men of Virtue and Confucians lined the East and West Corridors.   Tablets representing Sages, Men of Virtue, and Confucians remind the scholars that, through industriousness, anyone can be virtuous or a sage.   The tablets also represent the struggles of previous scholars, relating the process of evolution and integration of the Confucius doctrine in both culture and history.

 
  Mengfucius followed and further promoted Confucius’ moral thinking by merging ethics with politics. In the years of Mengfucius, doctrines boomed as Yang Ju and Me Zhai had theirs everywhere. Mengfucius fought back by advocating that just must ride above interests and that made him honored as the second greatest sage.

 
  Shunze is a Confucian, though he was quite different from the Confucian and Mengfucian doctrines. He took in essence of Taoism, Mohism and Legalist Schools as well as military exports. When it comes to education, he believed that all men are born diabolic and only rituals could govern people. Education is key. Politically, he does not agree with the implementation of rituals only, the law is just as important. Rituals with the law is key to successful administration.

 
Han Dynasty: Flourishing Study of Classics In the early Han, study of Daoist thought, or “Huang Lao Study” flourished. This continued up until the Emperor Wudi solely embraced Confucianism. He established study of the “Five Classics” as well as the “Prince system of study.” In addition, Wudi also made familiarity with the Classics the basis for assuming official posts, causing Confucianism to enter the mainstream. Study of the Five Classics gradually became a trend. Following Qinshi Huang’s order to have all books burnt, Han Dynasty Confucians set about compiling and researching the Five Classics, engaging in chanfa and writing explanatory notes according to Confucius’ original intentions. This process was the so-called “Study of the Classics During the Two Hans.”

 
  DONG put the Confucianism order into 3 orders and the 5 rules and gives Spring and Autumn a new interpretation. where Spring and Autumn is systemized for the God-Human connection. Of the highlighted influence of DONG, No. 1 is the combination of politics and education, where the state runs and promotes education as a way to prepare skilled hands for the nation. No. 2 comes the exclusive advocacy of Confucianism, which is kept as the only backbone of the official thinking of the administration.

 
Ontological Thought in the Wei-Jin Period, and the Influence of Buddhism on Confucianism.   The Wei-Jin Period was a time of transition in Chinese thought and culture. Politics and society were in turmoil, causing a loosening in moral constraints. The serene, casually enlightening nature of Daoism and Confucianism’s pursuit of abstract excellence cast off the shackles of classical thought and spurred the emergence of ontological (“xuan”) philosophy. Confucianism’s Renaissance during the Tang   From the Wei-Jin Period until the Tang, Buddhism, based in Indian Buddhism, completed a process of reform and Sinicization. However, in the Middle Tang, Confucianism gradually experienced a renaissance. Its substance would never again be limited to the Classics. On the one hand, it would address certain metaphysical questions posed by ontological and Buddhist thought, while on the other hand, criticize Buddhism for being the cause of numerous social ills. Han Yu and Li Ao were key figures in Confucianism’s renaissance.

 
  Orthodoxy teachings refer to the Confucianism tradition that survives Yao, Shun, Yu, Tang, Wen, Wu, Zhougong, Confucius and Mengfucius. The word doctrine aims at the vivid life, where ethics and moral are highlighted in contrast to the escaping Buddhism and the let-free body claimed by the Spiritualism. HAN does honor Mengfucius and is much concerned about the spiritual part in Mengfucius, the Great Learning and the Golden Mean as elements to fight against the booming Buddhism of the time, a move that triggered the movement of natural sciences of the Soong and Ming Dynasties.

 
Major Trends in Neo-Confucianism during the Song and Ming   Baptized and challenged by Buddhism of the Wei and Jin Dynasties, study of natural sciences in Soong and Ming Dynasties introduces more theoretical narration about metaphysic thoughts Confusing seldom touches. Nevertheless, concerned more about the present, they do not pay less attention to the world, on the contrary, somewhat influenced by Spiritualism of the Wei and Jin Dynasties and Buddhism of Sui and Tang Dynasties, they make deeper studies on human nature, roles played by education and launched the Great Learning, Golden Mean, Mengfucius and Analect. Known as the 4 Book, key tools when it comes to self-improvement.   In the study of natural sciences of the Soong and Ming Dynasties, the root of the universe is referred as science of doctrine as it is right in and reigns the mass. Intangible, though a natural order that never changes and the ultimate root to the order of the universe. On the other side, air or artifact refers to metaphysic science of doctrine and in concrete science, it means individual matters, just like human character. CHENG JU and LU WANG may dispute whether the 2 elements are 2 separate elements of one in human character, as education may be a key issue, all do agree with the role played by education and this is so as of this day.   Governed by the thinking of Becoming a Buddha, the study of natural science of the Soong and Ming Dynasties sees education in a totally different way that of the Han and Tang Dynasties, when learning is meant to having a post in the government. It advocates redemption of the traditional thinking of Confucianism education, that is to say, turning one a sage on the inside and emperor on the outside. An intellectual must learn more to become a virtuous or a teaching Confucian, he must be committed to become another Confucius or Mengfucius. By that time, he would be entitled to promote the thought. However, the virtuous of the Soong and Ming Dynasties made more effort in becoming a sage on the inside than emperor on the outside, as they see the latter key to everything. Commitment is important to them, they commit themselves to studying classics of the sage while practicing them in the daily life and they believe capable of becoming another Yao, Shun, Confucius and Mengfucius someday.   Then what to do to trim oneself and become a sage The natural scientists of the Soong and Ming Dynasties believe repeated study of classics of the sage on one side while following the teaching of the same on the other can be the way. As man carries science and air, when it comes to preserving the heart and caring the temperament, it means preserving the nature and removing desires, otherwise on can never become a sage. Study and preserving the nature are interactive. Study means to touch more science, ask more questions, identify the good from the bad and practice what is correct. One must be seeking facts for everything. All this suggests those studying aims to check out science before implementing it. When it comes to preserving the heart, honest, tranquility, respect and concentration are must. Only be reviewing oneself, caring less about oneself and removing selfishness on continuous basis, one could realize what the great nature is all about.   Song-Ming Neo-Confucian philosophers opposed the idea of “study for serving the official” thinking of the Han and Tang Dynasties, and strongly advocated a return to the traditional thought of Pre-Qin Confucian education, namely the concept of “becoming a saint from inside becoming an emperor from outside” They contended that the purpose of study was not only to become Sages or Classic-reciting Confucians; instead, there should be a greater “ambition” to become a saint like Confucius. Only after one has cultivated themselves into a saint, can they be qualified to promote political ideals. During the decline of Song-Ming neo-Confucianism, there occurred some problems. Scholars tended not to place importance on the “becoming an emperor from outside” aspect, but being too concentrated on the inner structure and the relations of the beings in the universe, and neglect the urgent and practical need of the whole country. Hence made their study become nothing but empty talk.

 
  The thoughts of the 4 masters in natural sciences of the Soong Dynasty are merged in 1 and the learning of the 2 CHENs is the backbone. The system of natural sciences cements the Confucianism orientation and it clarifies the connection between science and air as in the Confucianism doctrine. JU makes notes for the 4 Books and then keeps on researching the origins of Confucius and Mengfucius, something that has impacts on intellectuals for about 700 years.

 
  ZHOU founds the framework for metaphysics as both the universe and its formation is discussed there. Other Confucians before ZHOU ignored this part. When challenged by the Buddhist thoughts, ZHOU converts the good points of the opponent into his own doctrine.

 
  While promoting the concept of mercifulness of Confucianism, ZHANG advocates that mercifulness covers the universe, where all matters and self are one. Even man is made by air that comes and goes. ZHANG’s philosophy is about air and that man carries the nature of the universe and nature of air. Education is to redeem the deviated nature of air and turns it back to the nature of the universe.

 
  Merging air and other metaphysic theories, science is kept to form the natural science of the universe. Air is the tangible transformation of science and in the universe, it is also known as artifact, which is referred in the so-called metaphysics as science and in the tangible way, it is artifact.

 
  LU Jiuyuan believes that “our heart is a universe and universe is our heart”. A man’s heart reflects the universe and one does not have to seek answers otherwise for everything, as everything is in our heart. That is why heart is science.

 
  WANG advocates instinct and knowledge merged with action. Heart is science and instinct, root of all matters. Before making instinct play, one must keep his own mind and idea straight.

 
The Realism in Late Ming and the beginning of Ching   In late Ming, a new trends in ‘the realism’ had been arising, scholars and philosophers advocated literati to study practical science such as geography, chronology, epigraphy, mathematics and philology, apart from study on classics and mind. Books about practical science and philology were not only written and published by scholars or officials, but also by rich merchants that patronized writers and artists and that engaged themselves in studies about geography, chronology, epigraphy, mathematics, philology, and the Confucian Classics.

 
  ZHOU founds the framework for metaphysics as both the universe and its formation is discussed there. Other Confucians before ZHOU ignored this part. When challenged by the Buddhist thoughts, ZHOU converts the good points of the opponent into his own doctrine.

 
  Gu Yanwu (1613-1682) criticises both Zhu Xi's philosophy of the universal order as well as Lu Jiuyuan's philosophy of the mind as a factor weakening the country, the government and the society. In his writing Rizhilu "Records of things knowledgeable in a day", he accuses Neo-Confucians as dealing with matters too unimportant for politics, education, law and order, the Song and Ming philosophers being too concentrated on the inner structure and the relations of the beings in the universe. He compares Zhu Xi and his followers with the philosophers of the Jin Dynasty who cultivated discussions about mental or phychological topics, or even with the Chan (Zen) school of Buddhism. Instead he proposes to use a philosophy of realism (shixue) and to study the old books of Confucianism. Only the content of these books can enable people to pursue a self-cultivation and to rely on an acting with a self-imposed confinement on the necessary questions of philosophy.

 
  Confucius’ family name is Kong and his name is Chiu, but also known as Zhongni. A native of the Lu State, Confucius was born in 551 B.C. As a newly born, he lost his father Shu Liangqi, who passed away. Living a humble childhood, Confucius envisioned high goals. As a kind, he used to play worship rituals. At 15, he began dedicated only to studies as diligent student. (Judou Rituals) Once Confucius learnt the bureaucratic system of the old times from Yenzi. Confucius also learnt ritual systems from Laoran. Confucius learnt music from Zhanghong and Shixiang. It was for his learning spirits, Confucius became an intellectual man.   Confucius used to work as a warehouse keeper and gardener at his young age. At the age of 27, Confucius began serving the management of Lu State.At the age of 30, Confucius turned to work on education to the population and became known for his enriched knowledge about rituals. The deed is evidenced by the fact that Mengxizi, a minister of the Lu State, had sent his 2 sons to learn rituals from Confucius, who was referred to as master.   When Confucius turned 35, he found shelter in the Qi State as the Lu State turned politically chaotic. In the Qi State, Qijing appraised the renowned Confucius and asked for his advisory in 2 opportunities. It was there that Confucius cited the moral measures of King, Minister, Father and Son as concept for state management. (Political advisory to the King of Qi State) Despite the appreciation of Qijing, the blocking launched by Yanying, Qi’s minister; Confucius had to turn back to Lu. Troubled by corruption practiced by the dictatorial Yangh, Confucius determined not to take any political offer, in stead, he began sorting out poems, books, rituals and musical writings and began taking pupils. (Poems and books in the retirement.)   Confucius’ tour lasted 14 years and it took him to Wei, Soong, Cu, Cai and Chen among other states and saw incidents as well. One of such was that someone from Kwang in Wei State took Confucius for Yanghu, a notorious hooligan and Confucius was then confined for 5 days. When Wu State attacked Chen State, Confucius sought shelter in Cu State with his disciples and the group was stopped by criminals dispatched by the feudal princes at the Chen-Cai border, having no food available and many of the disciples in hunger and illness, Confucius kept on teaching, study, playing musical instruments and singing, showroom the spirit of a saint.   In Year 14 of Lu’s Ai Dynasty, when Confucius was 68, Jikangzi invited him back to Lu State in complete rituals. At that time, many of his disciples that accompanied him in the tour, such as Zhongong, Ziyou and Zixia took offering made by the governing administration and they all followed Confucius’ political ideal in the exercise.Confucius went on with his teaching career while studying the Yi books and at the same time preparing materials for poems, books, rituals and music. Of his 3,000 strong pupils, 72 are renowned for exceptional deeds. In his late years, Confucius dedicated himself in writing and teaching “Spring and Autumn” based on official books published by the states.   Once someone caught a deer-resembling animal in the wild and having no idea if it would mean bad luck, the animal was displayed to the 71-year-old Confucius. After checking it, Confucius cried and said: This is Qilin! In old days, Qilin used to be a popular animal for its kindness. Killing one does suggest that kindness Confucius had been advocating was gone! When Yanhui, one of Confucius’ favorite disciples, died, Confucius said “God is gone, God is gone”. The following year, Zilu, the disciple who had followed Confucius longest, was killed in an internal turmoil of Wei State, the grieving Confucius became ill. (Yanhui died of illness while Zilu was killed accidentally.) In a spring evening of the year when Confucius turned 73, he dreamed of his own death as he was on his knees between 2 columns. The following day, he sang by the door: “Is Taishan bold! Are the beams decayed Will all wise men be gone After that, he told Zigong that he was dying. Then be was in bed for 7 days and died at the age of 73.The Si River to the north of the City of Lu buried the deceased Confucius. The disciples accompanied him by the tomb for 3 years and the mourning Zigong built a house there and stayed for a space of 6 years. (Mourning by building a house.)   Aigong of Lu converted Confucius’ house into the Confucius Temple, a site for collection of his clothing, hats, musical instruments and books. Then, some disciples and people of Lu State built houses by the tomb to form a community that was later referred as the Confucius neighborhood. Since then, people have been worshipping Confucius’ deeds for 2,500 years and Confucius is honored as the Greatest Sage & Teacher.

 
From Scholar-officials to the Zhou Dynasty Philosophers   Under the feudal system of Late Antiquity, the three areas of religion, politics, and academia were inseparably bound. This kind of aristocratic academia was referred to as “scholar-officialdom” (王官學) “Ceremonial” and “historical” officials were among those responsible for preserving, organizing, and disseminating knowledge. The substance of “learning” was immensely varied, but in general was centered on rites. One could say that the term “rites” encompassed all politics and academics in ancient society. Rites were not only the basis on which states were ruled and the standard for military action; they were moreover a model for aristocratic lifestyles and individual deportment.   In the Eastern Zhou Dynasty, the emperor Tianzi’s system of religious law gradually collapsed. In increasing numbers, lesser noblemen gradually dispersed to the grass roots. In addition, competition between states made it possible for average citizens to get promoted. The ancient scholar-official system was thus gradually disseminated at the grass roots level, eventually becoming the study of very kinds of philosophic thoughts. There were six major schools of thought, including that of Confucius, Mozi, the Legalists, and Yinyang. Confucius, Mengzi, and the Early Confucians   Represented by Confucius and Mengzi, the early Confucians were characterized by their emphasis on humanistic spirit, and affirmation of the basic goodness of man. They believed that, through spiritual perception, a person could achieve an ideal moral constitution, what the Confucians termed being a “gentleman.” In addition, Confucianism also included the concept of man’s inherent evil, as found in Xunzi, used to stress the importance of Confucian education, and rule through ritual. This was to have a far-reaching effect on later generations of Confucians. Han Dynasty: Flourishing Study of Classics   In the early Han, study of Daoist thought, or “Huang Lao Study” flourished. This continued up until the Emperor Wudi solely embraced Confucianism. He established study of the “Five Classics” as well as the “Prince system of study.” In addition, Wudi also made familiarity with the Classics the basis for assuming official posts, causing Confucianism to enter the mainstream. Study of the Five Classics gradually became a trend. Following Qinshi Huang’s order to have all books burnt, Han Dynasty Confucians set about compiling and researching the Five Classics, engaging in chanfa and writing explanatory notes according to Confucius’ original intentions. This process was the so-called “Study of the Classics During the Two Hans.”。 Ontological Thought in the Wei-Jin Period, and the Influence of Buddhism on Confucianism.   The Wei-Jin Period was a time of transition in Chinese thought and culture. Politics and society were in turmoil, causing a loosening in moral constraints. The serene, casually enlightening nature of Daoism and Confucianism’s pursuit of abstract excellence cast off the shackles of classical thought and spurred the emergence of ontological (“xuan”) philosophy. Confucianism’s Renaissance during the Tang   From the Wei-Jin Period until the Tang, Buddhism, based in Indian Buddhism, completed a process of reform and Sinicization. However, in the Middle Tang, Confucianism gradually experienced a renaissance. Its substance would never again be limited to the Classics. Intsead, it would, on the one hand, respond to the problems of existence posed by ontological and Buddhist thought, while on the other hand, criticize Buddhism for being the cause of a number of social problems. Han Yu and Li Ao were leading figures in Confucianism’s renaissance.

 
Mengfucius (372 b.c.∼289b.c. Zhou in the Period of Warring States)   Mengfucius followed and further promoted Confucius’ moral thinking by merging ethics with politics. In the years of Mengfucius, doctrines boomed as Yang Ju and Me Zhai had theirs everywhere. Mengfucius fought back by advocating that just must ride above interests and that made him honored as the second greatest sage.

 
Shunze(298 B.C.∼238 B.C. Zhao State in the Period of Warring States)   Shunze is a Confucian, though he was quite different from the Confucian and Mengfucian doctrines. He took in essence of Taoism, Mohism and Legalist Schools as well as military exports. When it comes to education, he believed that all men are born diabolic and only rituals could govern people. Education is key. Politically, he does not agree with the implementation of rituals only, the law is just as important. Rituals with the law is key to successful administration.

 
DONG Zhongshu (Early Han Dynasty, 179∼104 B.C)   DONG put the Confucianism order into 3 orders and the 5 rules and gives Spring and Autumn a new interpretation. where Spring and Autumn is systemized for the God-Human connection. Of the highlighted influence of DONG, No. 1 is the combination of politics and education, where the state runs and promotes education as a way to prepare skilled hands for the nation. No. 2 comes the exclusive advocacy of Confucianism, which is kept as the only backbone of the official thinking of the administration.

 
HAN Yu(Mid Tang Dynasty, 768∼824 A.D.)   Orthodoxy teachings refer to the Confucianism tradition that survives Yao, Shun, Yu, Tang, Wen, Wu, Zhougong, Confucius and Mengfucius. The word doctrine aims at the vivid life, where ethics and moral are highlighted in contrast to the escaping Buddhism and the let-free body claimed by the Spiritualism. HAN does honor Mengfucius and is much concerned about the spiritual part in Mengfucius, the Great Learning and the Golden Mean as elements to fight against the booming Buddhism of the time, a move that triggered the movement of natural sciences of the Soong and Ming Dynasties.

 
Study of natural sciences in Soong & Ming Dynasties   Baptized and challenged by Buddhism of the Wei & Jin Dynasties, study of natural sciences in Soong & Ming Dynasties introduces more theoretical narration about metaphysic thoughts Confusing seldom touches. Nevertheless, concerned more about the present, they do not pay less attention to the world, on the contrary, somewhat influenced by Spiritualism of the Wei and Jin Dynasties and Buddhism of Sui and Tang Dynasties, they make deeper studies on human nature, roles played by education and launched the Great Learning, Golden Mean, Mengfucius and Analect. Known as the 4 Book, key tools when it comes to self-improvement.   In the study of natural sciences of the Soong & Ming Dynasties, the root of the universe is referred as science of doctrine as it is right in and reigns the mass. Intangible, though a natural order that never changes and the ultimate root to the order of the universe. On the other side, air or artifact refers to metaphysic science of doctrine and in concrete science, it means individual matters, just like human character. CHENG JU and LU WANG may dispute whether the 2 elements are 2 separate elements of one in human character, as education may be a key issue, all do agree with the role played by education and this is so as of this day.   Governed by the thinking of Becoming a Buddha, the study of natural science of the Soong and Ming Dynasties sees education in a totally different way that of the Han & Tang Dynasties, when learning is meant to having a post in the government. It advocates redemption of the traditional thinking of Confucianism education, that is to say, turning one a sage on the inside and emperor on the outside. An intellectual must learn more to become a virtuous or a teaching Confucian, he must be committed to become another Confucius or Mengfucius. By that time, he would be entitled to promote the thought. However, the virtuous of the Soong & Ming Dynasties made more effort in becoming a sage on the inside than emperor on the outside, as they see the latter key to everything. Commitment is important to them, they commit themselves to studying classics of the sage while practicing them in the daily life and they believe capable of becoming another Yao, Shun, Confucius and Mengfucius someday.   Then what to do to trim oneself and become a sage The natural scientists of the Soong & Ming Dynasties believe repeated study of classics of the sage on one side while following the teaching of the same on the other can be the way. As man carries science and air, when it comes to preserving the heart and caring the temperament, it means preserving the nature and removing desires, otherwise on can never become a sage. Study and preserving the nature are interactive. Study means to touch more science, ask more questions, identify the good from the bad and practice what is correct. One must be seeking facts for everything. All this suggests those studying aims to check out science before implementing it. When it comes to preserving the heart, honest, tranquility, respect and concentration are must. Only be reviewing oneself, caring less about oneself and removing selfishness on continuous basis, one could realize what the great nature is all about.

 
ZHOU Tungyi(North Soong 1016—1073 A.D)   ZHOU founds the framework for metaphysics as both the universe and its formation is discussed there. Other Confucians before ZHOU ignored this part. When challenged by the Buddhist thoughts, ZHOU converts the good points of the opponent into his own doctrine.

 
ZHANG Zai(North Soong, 1019—1077A.D)   While promoting the concept of mercifulness of Confucianism, ZHANG advocates that mercifulness covers the universe, where all matters and self are one. Even man is made by air that comes and goes. ZHANG’s philosophy is about air and that man carries the nature of the universe and nature of air. Education is to redeem the deviated nature of air and turns it back to the nature of the universe.

 
The 2 CHENs   Merging air and other metaphysic theories, science is kept to form the natural science of the universe. Air is the tangible transformation of science and in the universe, it is also known as artifact, which is referred in the so-called metaphysics as science and in the tangible way, it is artifact.

 
JU Xi (South Soong, 1130—1200A.D)   The thoughts of the 4 masters in natural sciences of the Soong Dynasty are merged in 1 and the learning of the 2 CHENs is the backbone. The system of natural sciences cements the Confucianism orientation and it clarifies the connection between science and air as in the Confucianism doctrine. JU makes notes for the 4 Books and then keeps on researching the origins of Confucius and Mengfucius, something that has impacts on intellectuals for about 700 years.

 
LU Jiuyuan (Ming, 1139—1193)   LU Jiuyuan believes that “our heart is a universe and universe is our heart”. A man’s heart reflects the universe and one does not have to seek answers otherwise for everything, as everything is in our heart. That is why heart is science.

 
WANG Shouren(Ming, 1452—1528 A.D)   WANG advocates instinct and knowledge merged with action. Heart is science and instinct, root of all matters. Before making instinct play, one must keep his own mind and idea straight.

 
Gu Yanwu(late Ming, beginning of Ching,1613-1682)   Gu Yanwu (1613-1682) criticises both Zhu Xi's philosophy of the universal order as well as Lu Jiuyuan's philosophy of the mind as a factor weakening the country, the government and the society. In his writing Rizhilu 日知錄 "Records of things knowledgeable in a day", he accuses Neo-Confucians as dealing with matters too unimportant for politics, education, law and order, the Song and Ming philosophers being too concentrated on the inner structure and the relations of the beings in the universe. He compares Zhu Xi and his followers with the philosophers of the Jin Dynasty who cultivated discussions about mental or phychological topics, or even with the Chan (Zen) school of Buddhism. Instead he proposes to use a philosophy of realism (shixue 實學) and to study the old books of Confucianism. Only the content of these books can enable people to pursue a self-cultivation and to rely on an acting with a self-imposed confinement on the necessary questions of philosophy.

 
  The Yi dance dates back to the era of Zhougong as the most solemn ritual in old days. Today, the only time when the Yi dance is conducted is when people conduct the Confucius ceremonial ritual. The ceremony is conducted to demonstrate the utmost honor people offer to Confucius. Usually the e 6-fold-formation Yi dance is offered, sometimes 8-fold-formation Yi dance is offered instead.Since the Tang Dynasty, the Confucius ceremonial ritual has been offered in spring and autumn and the practice survives as of this day. The autumn and spring ceremonies used to be conducted on the 14th day of the second and eighth month respectively. China had long been using the Ten Celestial Stems and the 12 Terrestrial Branches as its own calendar for time calculating. This system may date back to the Shang Dynasty. The Ten Celestial Stems are Jia, Yi, Bing, Ding, Wu, Ji, Gen, Xing, Ren & Kui. The 12 Terrestrial Branches are Zi, Chou, Yin, Mou, Chen, Yi, Wu, Wei, Shen, You, Shou and Hai. The configurations of the stems and the branches are 60, suggesting the cycle of 60 lunar days in the Chinese year. As the Ten Celestial Stems come in cycles of 10 days each, a month would come with 3 stems. Shangding would mean the 1st day of the first stem of the month.   September 28, when Taiwan offers its Confucius ceremonial rituals in the Confucius temples islandwide is known as the Teacher’s Day and the Tainan Confucius is the only venue that offers the spring ceremony today.   In the beginning, the Yi dancers were youngsters from noble families as the Yi dance a compulsory course for the formation of all students in public schools. According to the Ban Palace of Rituals and Music: Said the crown prince to Emperor Wen: All crown princes and students must learn fighting in spring and summer and dancing and music in autumn and winter. The Book of Music: “When crowned, Emperor Wu intends to highlight martial arts, though the crown prince, the prince and sons of the concubines and ministers known nothing about, as they are all devoted to dancing.” In addition to sound background, one must be handsome to become a Yi dancer: “of 7 feet in height and aged between 12 and 30, of fair face and body apt for dancing” This is just to show how people were concerned about selection of Yi dancers.   Talking about the Yi dance for the Confucius ceremonial rituals in Taiwan, it is the musical dance conducted in the Qing Dynasty. In Taipei, when the Confucius Ritual Ceremonies Commission was established as part of the Chinese Culture Renaissance Movement institutionalized, advocated by the late President JIANG Kaishek between 1968 and 1970, the musical script of Nanyung Records of the early Ming Dynasty was selected for the ceremony (later the dancing script of Ban Palace of Rituals and Music of the late Ming Dynasty became the replacement), it is the dancing script of the Ming Dynasty. Owning to the reduced space, only a 6-fold-formation Yi dance is conducted by students from the Dalong Elementary School.

 
  The so-called Yi means fold formation. The 8-fold-formation consists of dancers in 8 lines and the 6-fold-formation consists of dancers in 6, and so on. When it comes to number of Yi dancers, only an emperor offers the 8-fold-formation Yi dance, crown princes only offer the 6-fold-formation Yi dance, high officials offer the 4-fold-formation Yi dance and ordinary officers 2-fold-formation Yi dance. As a way of demonstration of ritual, the Yi dance shows strong moral spirit.   When Jisun, the most powerful in the Lu state of the period of Spring and Autumn, once offered an 8-fold-formation Yi dance in his house, Confucius commented by saying: “This is intolerable.” Jisun was only an ordinary officer and was not supposed to offer the 8-fold-formation Yi dance that was reserved for an emperor only.

 
  The Yi dance used to be conducted in 2 parts that were accompanied by music and martial movements respectively. Martial movements were abolished in the Soong Dynasty when literary plays prevailed. Resumed for some time, the modern Yi dance does not show any martial movement. The Yi dance is conducted in the ceremonial rituals along with the tunes played in the preliminary, the secondary and the final presentation of sacrifice and each of the words is demonstrated by a unique dancing music and posture.   As indicated in the Record of Ban Palace of Rituals and Music, when the Yi dance is conducted, the martial dance is demonstrated with the dancers holding a shield in the left hand and a battle-ax in the right hand. As the left side stands for kindness and the right one just, the shield is held in vertical position facing outward and the battle-ax in horizontal position facing inward. When a musical dance is conducted, the dancers hold a flute in horizontal position the left hand standing for balance and the right hand holds a pheasant tail-feather facing outward that stands for integrity. The flute is a bamboo-made musical instrument suggesting the Ying. As it resembles the flute as a Western musical instrument, it stands for sound and harmony. The pheasant-tail feather is an ornament standing for the Yang as appearance. When the two merge, it stands that the Ying and the Yang play harmoniously as the orderly universe.   The Confucius Ritual Ceremonies Commission as part of the Chinese Culture Renaissance Movement institutionalized the costume of the Yi dancers and the musicians between 1968 and 1970. The musicians, the singers and the Yi dancers use the circular collar and right-side-open robe as uniform. The Yi dancers use yellow robes, the musicians and the singers wear red robe and the guides holding scriptures and banners use green robe. All the robes are used together with a dark-blue-colored waist belt with a butterfly-shaped knot with the buckle facing down as sash of ancient gown, plus white silk pants and blacks boots. All the musicians and singers use a black hat bearing 3 yellow ridges. The Yi dancers used to wear a wig in the form of falling hairs. Later a Ming-Dynasty-style black kerchief was used instead as ordinary or minors.

 
What the Yi Dance means in education   Dance accompanied by music is also known as Yunmen, Daxian, Dashao and Daxia. Ancient people used to have dancing courses in their educational activities and dances for people of different ages were available, just as we did in the physical education class. Dance was never something for people to learn, it was a means of social activity and way of life. Besides being an educational curriculum, dance was used in banquets, political and diplomatic events and even in ceremonial rituals.   The Yi dance is highlighted for its featuring ritual, music and dance. Dancing is a tangible demonstration of music and a rhythmic dance demonstrates what the greatest intended to teach people.   To Confucians, rituals are order in the universe that should govern the population as well. When it comes to music, it means harmony, the ordinary and when listening to it, people would follow the order it transmits. Dance does transmit harmony and the ordinary in the movement rather than keeping the same on the inside. Accordingly, people would be properly guided to follow the moral rule set by the community. In one word, the basic meaning of the Yi dance is education.   In the past, disciplinary orders were taught to avoid arrogance and poems, books and dancing with music were delivered to promote peace. The Yang is transmitted through dancing as a way to guide all creatures and talented hands are worth celebrating. Education begins with the delivery of rituals and music played by the blind and then formal dances, successful the process, a great king would then be made.   The fact the all creatures follow the disciplinary order played by poems, books and music symbolizes exactly the sacred objective Confucius had when teaching people.

 


 
  Confucius was surnamed Kong, named Chiu, and also known as Zhongni. He was born in 551 B.C., in the state of Lu. His father, Shu Lianghe died shortly after his birth.

 
  Living a humble childhood, Confucius envisioned high goals. As a child, he liked to imitate worship rituals. At 15, he dedicated himself to his studies.(Judou rituals)

 
  Confucius learned the ancient bureaucratic system from Yenzi.

 
  and also learned ritual systems from Laodan.

 
  He learned music from Zhanghong and Shixiang. Because of his aptitude for study, Confucius became a great scholar.

 
  In his youth, Confucius worked as a warehouse keeper and gardener. At the age of 27, he began serving the state of Lu.

 
  At the age of 30, Confucius began work in education, and became known for his knowledge of rituals. This is evidenced by the fact that Mengxizi, a minister in the Lu government, sent his 2 sons to study rites under Confucius, who was referred to as “Master.”

 
  When Confucius turned 35, the state of Lu fell into turmoil, so he found shelter in the state of Qi. There, Qijing praised the renowned Confucius and on two occasions asked for counsel. It was there that Confucius imparted the moral roles for kings, ministers, fathers and sons in the management of state affairs.(Political advisor to the King of Qi)

 
  Despite the appreciation of Qijing, resistance from the minister Yanying forced Confucius to return to Lu. However, troubled by corruption under the dictatorial Yanghu, Confucius decided to leave government work. He began compiling poems, books, rituals, and music, and began taking on pupils. (Poems and books in retirement.)

 
  At 51, Confucius was named Prime Minister of Lu and did an outstanding job. In only three years, Lu became a great country that saw lost belongings returned to owners, a reduction of theft, unified pricing, and respect for seniority. (Unified pricing)

 
  Confucius showed his diplomatic skill as well. At the “Meeting of the Canyons,” Confucius made Qi return the land it had taken from Lu.(Meeting of the Canyons)

 
  Domestically, Confucius removed the threat posed by three potential warlords and ordered the deaths of those ministers responsible for the chaos. In a mere three months, order was returned to Lu.(Three cities)

 
  Afraid that Confucius’ administration could make Lu a power, the state of Qi sent 80 carefully selected lady musicians and 120 fine horses to Lu ministers, an act that kept the minister Jihuanzi absent from office for 3 days. In the rituals that followed, Jihuanzi refused to send Confucius meat for worship as instructed. The ministers’ corrupt behavior disappointed Confucius, and he again left the state of Lu.(Leaving Lu after quitting post)

 
  Confucius’ tour lasted 14 years, taking him to Wei, Song, Chu, Cai and Chen, among others. Many events occurred during these travels, including the time when someone from Wei mistook Confucius for Yanghu, a notorious hooligan, whereupon Confucius was confined for 5 days. (Confucius’ confinement in Wei)

 
  When the state of Wu attacked the state of Chen, Confucius and his disciples sought shelter in the state of Chu. The group was stopped by criminals dispatched by feudal princes at the Chen-Cai border. With no food available and many of the disciples hungry and sick, Confucius kept on teaching, studying, playing musical instruments and singing, displaying a saintly spirit. (Without food in state of Chen)

 
  68 year-old Confucius was welcomed back to the state of Lu with a complete set of rites by Jikangzi. Many of Confucius’ disciples that had toured with him, such as Zhongong, Ziyou and Zixia, became government officials, putting Confucius’ political ideals into practice.

 
  Confucius continued teaching, also studying the I Ching and compiling poems, books, rituals and music. Of his more than 3,000 pupils, 72 are famous for exceptional deeds. Later, Confucius dedicated himself to writing the “Spring and Autumn Annals,” based on official books from the different states. (Overview of the Six Doctrines)

 
  One day, someone caught a deer-like animal in the wild. Worried it would mean bad luck, the animal was brought to 71-year-old Confucius. After examining it, Confucius cried and said: “This is a unicorn! In the old days, unicorns were known for their kindness. The killing of this unicorn indicates that the kindness I have advocated is gone!” (Dead unicorn brought to Confucius)

 
  When Yanyuan, one of Confucius’ favorite disciples, died, Confucius lamented, “God has forsaken me!” The following year, when Zilu, the disciple who had followed Confucius longest, was killed in the turmoil-ridden state of Wei, the grieving Confucius became ill.(Yanyuan died of illness; Zilu killed accidentally)

 
  On a spring evening, in the year he turned 73, Confucius dreamed of his own death. He dreamt he was on his knees worshipping between 2 columns. The following day, he sang: “Mt. Tai is bald! Are the beams rotting Will all wise men wither away” Confucius then told Zigong he was dying. After 7 days in bed, Confucius died at the age of 73.(Dreaming of worshipping between two columns)

 
  Confucius was buried along the Si River, north of Lu City. His disciples grieved at the tomb for 3 years, and Zigong even built a house there, mourning for six years. (Building a house to mourn Confucius)

 
  Aigong of Lu converted Confucius’ house into a Confucius Temple, where a collection of the master’s clothing, hats, musical instruments and books was kept. Some disciples and townspeople later built houses by the tomb to form a community later referred to as the “Confucius neighborhood.” Since then, for 2,500 years, people have been worshipping Confucius, honoring him as “Supreme Sage and Teacher.”

 
  The Confucius Temple in Tainan was the first school in Taiwan. From here, Confucianism was gradually disseminated islandwide. But as the building was a temple, how could it be called a school   This educational institution—the highest of its kind in ancient Taiwan—served as both a site for ceremonial rituals and educational endeavors.

 
  In ancient times, temples and schools were combined into one. The temple was for worship, and sages, Men of Virtue, and Confucians—including Confucius himself—were all worshipped there. In the beginning, the temple was called the “Temple of the Sage,” “Temple of the Supreme Sage,” “Temple of the Supreme Teacher,” and then “Ta Cheng Palace.” By contrast, the school was a place of learning, including auditoriums and classrooms. Since the late Song Dynasty, it has been called the “Hall of Edification.”

 
  The temple and school consist of a number of key buildings, each with its own additional structures. Although separated by walls, the two parts are still mutually accessible. Besides the main body, the temple has both a front and back courtyard that make the entire compound resemble a palace, thus it is also called the “Teaching Palace.”

 
  The temple and school consist of a number of key buildings, each with its own additional structures. Although separated by walls, the two parts are still mutually accessible. Besides the main body, the temple has both a front and back courtyard that make the entire compound resemble a palace, thus it is also called the “Teaching Palace.”

 
  So-called “temple schooling system” refers to the erection of a temple within a school for ceremonial rituals. “Learning” is based on military training, which has its roots in the Three Dynasties period, when politics were combined with rituals. At that time, rituals were affairs of state, and also treated as educational activities.

 
  After the Chou Dynasty, ceremonial rituals were converted into institutionalized learning practices, where schooling activities consisting of the 6 practices and honorary sacrifices were conducted in 2 different areas, both educational in nature.

 
  In terms of architectural layout, the school is based on the Confucius Temple. Paintings of Confucius and his disciples were first kept as tablets, followed by figurines and ancestral tablets.

 
  It was in the Tang Dynasty that the number of ceremonial attendants increased, divided into “master,” “associate,” and “auxiliary.” The 72 Men of Virtue and the 21 Confucians were moved to the east and west sides, which later became the East and West Corridors.

 
  In the Song and Ming Dynasties, the Hall of Edification, the Repository and the left and right chambers were added behind the Ta Cheng Palace, forming a cluster of buildings.

 
  In the Ming Dynasty, in the 9th year of Jiajing, the Chisheng Shrine was built behind Ta Cheng Palace. In the Qing Dynasty, with the rise of the civil service examination system, private schools became packed with students. By contrast, public schools only held regular rituals and monthly examinations. This caused the Hall of Edification and associated buildings to gradually fade in significance.

 
  After the Song Dynasty, the Wenchang and Kuishing religions took shape and the Wenchang Shrine and Kuishing Tower were added. In the Qing Dynasty, the Emperor Wenchang institutionalized the ceremonial rituals. Qing Dynasty Ceremonies, stipulated that the Confucius Temple should consist of the Zhaozhong, Jiexiao, Minghuan and the Xiangxian shrines. Local rituals were also included in the temple schooling system.

 
  Originating in the Zhou Dynasty, the architectural system took shape in the East Jin, when Xieshi, the Prime Minister, petitioned for restoration of national schooling. The Confucius Temple was erected to the west of the national school, thus introducing the concept of “school on the left, temple on the right.”

 
  The relative positioning of temple and school varied with terrain and local environment, and could constitute either a front-rear or left-right layout. In Taiwan, it is common to see the temple on the right and the school on the left.

 
  In the school, the teacher is usually considered to be a reincarnated saint and exemplary model for the pupils, responsible for imparting doctrines and daily-living practices. The pupils are neighbors to the saints in the temple and learn from their teacher. They are expected to follow in their teachers’ footsteps.

 
  In the temple schooling system, Confucius, considered the god of knowledge, along with the Men of Virtue and the Confucianists, elevated the authority of knowledge and education to a divine level, high above imperial authority and politics. This divine status is intellectual and a model for the people to follow. Through ceremonial rituals, learning and obedience are encouraged.

 
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